New Shetland is an archipelago at approximately 35°N 159°W. The country consists of a number of volcanic archipelagos and a mainland that resembles the geological structure of Kamchatka. This land mass is part of the North Pacific plate, a tectonic plate that covers the northeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. Because of its location above some major faults, the country frequently experiences earth quakes and tsunamis caused by sea quakes. The land is naturally relatively unfertile, but volcanic activity created large fertile areas, such as the enormous Nieves Valley depression, the largest agricultural area. The land is characterized by large mountain ranges and plateaus. Some of the highest mountains of the Pacific area can be found in New Shetland.
During its long isolation, New Shetland developed a distinctive biodiversity of both animal and plant life. Most notable are the large number of unique bird species, many of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and introduced mammals. With a mild maritime climate, the land was mostly covered in forest.